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Pritzker Legal Research Center

Law Journals' Guide to Source & Cite

This guide is designed to help journal students locate and request materials for source and cite checking assignments.

What is prevents "link rot" (i.e., "page not found" or 404 error pages) and helps ensure that future readers will be able to access the electronic sources cited in law journal articles. Websites and webpages are constantly changing, with content being removed, updated, or moved elsewhere. allows users to preserve links by making archival copies of the webpages. With a Perma link, future readers will be able to see what a webpage looked like at the time when the Perma link was created, even if the webpage is subsequently modified or removed. allows authors and student editors to feel much more confident about relying on electronic sources in citations. The Bluebook encourages archiving links in Rule 18.

How to Set Up Accounts for Journal Members

Each journal has an organization account already set up in Every individual member and editor can be added as an organization user for your journal so everyone can create Perma links during the source and cite process. Law journal members will have control over all of the Perma links generated by other members on that journal (for instance, NULR members will be able to organize or see information about who generated the links created by other NULR members, but will not be able to do this for the links generated by JCLC members). 

If no current members of the executive board have accounts, please contact your journal liaison at the library with the name and email address of the board member(s) who will be responsible for setting up the individual accounts for the other members on the journal. 

Once that person has activated his or her account, he or she should follow these steps to set up accounts for the other members of your journal:

Step 1: Click on your name in the upper right corner of the screen and select "Manage Users." 

Step 2: Click on the "add organization user" button. 

Step 3: Type in the email address of the member or editor who you want to add as a user, then click "Add Organization user." You may also be prompted to fill in their first and last names on the next screen. 

Each new user will receive an email with a link to activate his or her account and will be prompted to create a new password. 

How to Create Perma Links

Once you have activated your account, you can begin creating Perma links for the URLs in citations. You can create links either individually or in batches (see below). 

Step 1: Log in to your account using your email address and password. 

Step 2: Copy and and paste the URL that you wish to create a Perma link for into the bar, and select the name of your journal to affiliate it with that organization. Click on the blue "Create Perma Link" button. 

Step 3: After a few seconds, you will see your record. The Perma link will become permanent after 24 hours. You should append the URL of the Perma link in brackets after the URL in the citation. 

Batch Link Creation now allows you to create Perma links in batches so you can generate Perma links for several URLs at one time instead of one by one. 

Step 1: Log in to your account using your email address and password. 

Step 2: Click on "create multiple links."

Step 3: Select the name of your journal to affiliate the links with that organization. Paste the URLs for which you would like to generate Perma links in the box with one URL per line, then click "Create Links." 

After a few seconds or minutes (depending on how many URLs are in the batch), you will receive a confirmation that the link batch has been completed, and the Perma links accompanying each URL will be listed. 

Tips & Tricks

Private Records: Occasionally, Perma links will be marked as private records. This usually happens with sources that are behind a paywall, such as newspaper articles from the online versions of the Wall Street Journal or the New York Times. You can also choose to mark certain records as private. Only the creator of the link and the organization that controls the account (your journal and the librarian administrators at the Pritzker Legal Research Center) will be able to see the content at the Perma link. You should still create Perma links for these sources to archive those webpages for your journal's own records, but they will not be viewable to all readers.
Browser Extensions and Bookmarklet: To create Perma links more quickly, you can install Chrome or Firefox extensions or use a bookmarklet.
Deleting Perma Links: You can only delete Perma links created within 24 hours. After 24 hours, the links will become permanent and can no longer be deleted. 
Organizing Perma Links: allows you to easily organize your links in folders. Your journal may wish to create a folder for each issue within a volume and then a subfolder for each article published in that issue.

Archiving PDF Documents can archive PDF documents posted online so that readers can access and download these documents using the Perma link in the future, even if the document is later removed from the original website. 

Archiving Multimedia (Audio Recordings and Videos) is unable to archive and retain multimedia content, such as audio recordings or videos. However, it still may be useful to create a Perma link for the URL of the webpage where the particular audio recording or video is hosted because that webpage may contain valuable information, such as the title of the video, date it was posted, and a description of the content. 

Citing Electronic Sources

Rule 18.2.1(d) of The Bluebook encourages archiving Internet sources when a reliable archival tool such as is available. In the citation, the archival URL should be appended following the URL in the citation in brackets.