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Pritzker Legal Research Center

Ethiopia: Center for International Human Rights


Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa, which is in the eastern part of the continent. Ethiopia is a landlocked country bordered by Eritrea (north), Djibouti and Somalia (east), Sudan and South Sudan (west), and Kenya (south). 

Government Structure

The government of Ethiopia is a federal parliamentary republic: 

  • Legislative branch: bicameral parliament (House of the Federation + House of People's Representatives)
  • Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of State, and Council of Ministers
  • Judicial branch: federal and state courts 

National Language

Amharic is the working language of Ethiopia. In early 2020, a policy added four official languages, including Afan Oromo (most widely spoken language), Afar, Somali, and Tigrigna. 

Country Profiles