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Pritzker Legal Research Center

Ecuador: Center for International Human Rights

Country Profiles & Reports

Country profiles and reports provide background information about a country's geography, government, economy, and culture. 


Ecuador is located on the west coast of South America and straddles the Equator. Ecuador is bordered by Peru and Colombia. 


Ecuador's government type is a Republic. The branches of government include the Executive Branch (28 ministries with an elected president as the head of state and head of government), Judicial Branch, and Legislative Branch (National Assembly). 

Ethnic Groups & Languages

Ecuador has a Mestizo majority (72% of the population) along with various minority and indigenous groups (Tsáchila, Chachi, Epera, Awa, Quichua, Shuar, Achuar, Shiwiar, Cofán, Siona, Secoya, Zápara, Andoa y Waorani, and Afro-Ecuadorians). 

The main languages are Spanish (Castilian) (93%), followed by Quichua (4.1%), other indigenous languages (0.7%), and foreign languages (2.2%).